The organic matter in farmland


In order to have a sustainable agricultural production, crop productivity is always stable not only for upland crops (vegetables, flowers, fruit trees, corn, beans …) but also for aquatic plants (rice ..)

In terms of agronomy there are many solutions, but perhaps often or periodically apply organic fertilizer to the soil to maintain soil organic matter (Soil Organic Matter, SOM) as one of the solutions that should be considered first. soil to maintain soil fertility

Organic matter in arable land in Vietnam in general is quickly lost due to high temperatures, high sunshine, heavy rain but uneven distribution (tropical climate, hot and humid). Therefore, it is necessary to apply organic fertilizer to crops every year. Currently, there are organic fertilizers on the market as follows:
1. Traditional organic fertilizer: originated from animals and plants such as: buffalo, cow, goat, chicken, quail, duck, northern feces, municipal waste, water and mud in the city and green manure (plants, grass). The above items are annealed for each item. Most of this segment of farms, farmers produce themselves.

2. Bio-organic fertilizers: produced from organic materials with the participation of useful living microorganisms or other biological agents such as bio-organic fertilizer HA 1-5-1,. . .

3. Organic mineral fertilizers: produced from organic materials, mixed with one or more mineral nutrients (N, P, K …) as mineral organic fertilizer HA 3-4-3,. . .

4. Microbial organic fertilizer: produced from organic materials containing one or more useful microorganism strains such as micro-organic fertilizer HA 1-1.5,. . . contains 1,106 cfu / g nitrogen fixing microorganisms. Fertilizers (2), (3), (4) have substrate organic matter (carrier, carrier) mostly peat soil (peat) that has been activated. chemical.

5. Fertilizers supplemented with growth regulators: are inorganic or organic fertilizers with a small amount of vitamins, enzymes, organic acids, or chemical agents that work in harmony. Crop head like Roots 2,. . .

6. Foliar fertilizer containing humic acid, fulvic acid Soil organic matter includes: (1) living microorganisms, (2) non-biodegradable organic waste, (3) decomposed organic matter (4) ) organic matter (humus). Humus includes: humic substances and substances that are not humic (nonhumic substances). Humic substances are the most important component of soil organic matter. By activating organic matter in the soil, extracting humic substances into two types: humic acid and fulvic acid, these two acids are widely applied in plants by soaking seeds, soaking seeds, soaking seedlings, Water on the ground or spray through the leaves.

Currently, due to economic and convenient reasons, there are many kinds of fertilizers with two types of acid fertilizers such as: K-Humate, Risopla II, Bioking-K (HC: 74.1 (Fulvic acid). + Humic acid: 70) or bio-organic fertilizers, organic fertilizer containing humic acid such as Risopla V. These two acids are mostly extracted from peat soil (peat) or from coal (coal). However, do not forget that the roots in the soil also contribute significantly to organic matter in the soil, in addition to covering the ground with straw, dry grass, dry leaves, cow legumes cover not only reduce soil erosion, reduce leaching, consequently, it will reduce the loss of organic matter in the soil, but after a while they will provide soil organic matter.

In summary, the two main substances of soil organic matter (SOM) are humic and fulvic acids. These two acids were extracted from peat (peat) or coal (coal) with advanced technologies. These two acids have been used and widely sold in Vietnam such as K-humate, Risopla II, Bioking-K. . . by spraying through the leaves well, watering the soil not only for rice (underwater plants) but also for the plants to run out. Application of humic acid and fulvic acid for plants is one of the methods of organic fertilizer for soil. Hopefully, by combining a reasonable farming technique to reduce the loss of organic matter in the soil and depending on conditions It is necessary to apply these types of organic fertilizers periodically to maintain soil fertility, maintain crop productivity in order to gradually have a green and sustainable agriculture under the conditions of intensive farming, growing crops, and thermal climate. hot and humid zone.